Neuromarketing Science & Business Association (NMSBA)

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  • August 08, 2017 11:32 | Carla Nagel (Administrator)

    According to the World’s Health Organization’s report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic (2011,) a third of the global adult population smokes, which results in five million smoking-related deaths per year worldwide. It is estimated that by the year 2030, this number will increase to eight million deaths annually. What is more, the addiction affects not only smokers, but also those around them, as more than 600.000 people die each year from second-hand smoking. Even so, smoke-free laws, such as prohibiting smoking in all indoor areas, protect only 16% of the world’s population.

    Bearing in mind the health and well-being of people around the world, our community at Neuromarketing Science & Business Association (NMSBA) has decided to address this matter by initiating the Neuro Against Smoking (NAS) Project - a cross-country study dedicated to health issues. The goal was to check what the true impact is and effectiveness of anti-tobacco warnings presented on cigarette packs across the globe and to show that neuro measures can enrich research findings. We wanted to bring new, valuable insights to the existing discussion on cigarette warnings. Reaction Time, one of many tools used by NMSBA members, allows to explore consumers’ impulsive and automatic attitudes – something that can be crucial to fully understand how warning messages are working. 

    NMSBA members and high technologies to promote healthy lifestyle

    This pro-bono study has been directed at promoting healthy lifestyle, supporting the tobacco-free environment, thus aiding societies and governments in their fight against smoking. Initially we estimated that it would be a small project with four to six participating countries, yet the response to the initiative exceeded our wildest expectations. Finally, to our knowledge, this has been the world’s biggest international neuro study regarding health issues to date, with 24 participating and seven supporting countries being represented by companies and universities. The project has not only exemplified how neuromarketing techniques can be used for greater good, but has also highlighted the potential resulting from joint cooperation. It has been inspiring to see that so many people creating our community have had the world’s well-being at heart and have been willing to contribute their time and resources in order to pursue it.

    In the form of an on-line survey, the test was held in: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Guatemala, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, Netherlands, Panama, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Switzerland (DE+FR), Taiwan, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States.

    All neuro experts who represented the participating countries had access to the data obtained during the course of the study. This gave them an opportunity to gain valuable insight regarding e.g. differences between countries, cultural aspects affecting the perception of the packages, hypothetical explanations of why given warning messages worked or didn’t work well or what needed to improve in order for them to be more effective in the future.

    Identifying effective solutions to fight against smoking

    When designing the research, we paid close attention to the WHO’s recommendations stating that (1) warnings should cover minimum 30% of the package, (2) they can consist either of text only or text + picture, and (3) they can present various content - oriented on smokers or smokers and people around them. Being aware that all of the countries participating in the study followed different regulations concerning cigarette packages, we wanted to see what effect would it have if they were following the minimal requirements of the World Health Organization. We are planning to address country differences in next studies.

    We selected four different warning messages for testing presented on the figure below. Two of them were text only based warnings (left side on Fig.1) and the other two were picture-based (right side on Fig. 1). In each group, one of the warnings conveyed a message directed at the harm the smoker does to himself (upper row on Fig 1), and one directed at the harm he causes to others (bottom row on Fig. 1).


    Fig. 1. Warnings messages used in the Neuro Against Smoking (NAS) Project; According to WHO recommendations

    Since smoking is described as a pediatric disease, our study targeted young people within their first three years of legal age for purchasing cigarettes in a given country (50% women, 50% men; 50% hard smokers - smoke every day, more than five cigarettes per day; 50% light users - don’t smoke every day, less than ten cigarettes per week).

    Pictures showing harm done to others are more effective

    The study proves that pictorial messages are more effective than text only based warnings. Even if textual warnings were evaluated equally high in declarations as pictorial warnings, on an emotional level warnings containing pictures were more convincing, as revealed by Reaction Time measure. Moreover, it seems that warning messages emphasizing harm done to other people are more effective than messages emphasizing harm done to smokers’ health. Additionally, both of the findings seem to be strong and culturally independent as similar findings were discovered in most of the participating countries.

    These findings not only support actions initiated by the WHO – e.g. introducing pictorial warnings - but also suggest that pictorial messages should be carefully selected to maximize their effectiveness.

    Added value of NEURO tools

    Neuro Against Smoking study also shows that the data gathered solely thanks to explicit declarative methods provide clear insights only in 50% of cases. By clear insights we mean the scores that allow making a decision and selecting the more effective warning message. If we only relied on declarative responses, we would be able to select more effective warning messages in 50% of cases. Nevertheless, applying Reaction Time enriches this score significantly: over 25% additional insights can be derived thanks to combining explicit and implicit methods, therefore we could identify more effective solutions even if on declarative levels all options tested reach similar scores. It proves that application of combined explicit and implicit measures can be beneficial to find the most effective solution and identify drivers that have real impact on smokers’ behavior

    We hope that Neuro Against Smoking (NAS) project is not only the first study regarding health issues conducted on such scale and a wonderful example of joint cooperation, but that it will also be a stepping stone for similar studies in the future, where the potential of neuro methods can be used for a greater good.


    The NAS Study Was Performed by:

    Brain & Research, eQ, Eye on media, FGV Projetos, haystack, Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Leibniz University of Hannover, Marketing Sciences, Mindmetriks Colombia, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, NEUROHM, Profi ts Consulting Group, PromoVerGroup, Quantix Panama, RDG Insights, Rotterdam School of Management/ Erasmus University, Salym.me, Sticky, Synergon Consulting, Synergy Marketing, Terragni Consulting, ThinkNeuro, Zürcher Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften

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    This article was originally published in the Neuromarketing Yearbook of 2016. Liked it? Order the 2017 Neuromarketing Yearbook now!

  • June 15, 2017 13:04 | Carla Nagel (Administrator)

    By Diana Lucaci

    In today’s hyper-digitalized world, brands can reach and interact with consumers in more ways than ever. But when it comes to driving action, are all channels created equal? To find out, we partnered with Canada Post to examine the effectiveness of physical (direct mail) and digital (e-mail and display) advertising media by way of their impacts on the consumer’s brain. We focused on two key indicators of media effectiveness: ease of understanding and persuasiveness, to answer the question: has direct mail become ‘obsolete’ with modern day technology?

    Our aim was to elucidate consumer attitudes towards five types of direct mail: postcard, envelope, 3-dimensional mailer, 3-D mailer with sound, 3-D mailer with scent, and four types of digital media: e-mail on laptop, e-mail on smartphone, display ad on laptop, display ad on smartphone. To do this, we utilized electroencephalography (EEG) and eye-tracking techniques, paired with pre and post-exposure surveys of the promotional materials. This approach allowed us to combine consumer self-report measures with measures of the brain’s electrical activity, creating a composite measure of consumer attitudes towards common modes of advertising media.

    The study consisted of 270 participants. After completing a pre-exposure survey, participants were fitted with an EEG cap and eye-tracking glasses to record activity while they interacted with various forms of physical and digital media. We quantified three major variables: cognitive load, motivation and visual attention to gauge how a person felt about each mode of advertising. Cognitive load represented how easily a message could be understood, derived from EEG activity in the area of the prefrontal cortex. Motivation or a general measure of decision-making was identified by asymmetric activity in similar prefrontal regions. For our measure of visual attention, we turned to the eye-tracking data which indicated a participant’s scan path and how long they spent looking at any given area of the ad.

    Our hypothesis stated: Physical, direct mail is more action-oriented than digital media because its physical format stimulates the underlying mental processes that guide behavior. Direct mail is more effective in driving consumer action than digital advertising.

    Direct mail vs. social media

    As predicted, we found that direct mail is easier to understand and more memorable than digital media. It required 21% less cognitive eff ort to process and elicited higher brand recall (75% vs. 44%) as evidenced by the ‘cognitive load’ score and post-exposure memory tests.

    Similarly, direct mail proved more persuasive than digital mail, as shown by the ‘motivation’ score. Direct mail’s motivation score was 20% higher than digital’s score (6.77 vs. 5.52) – even more so when the advertisement appealed to additional senses beyond touch (i.e. sound, scent).

    In addition, direct mail was found to be visually processed more quickly than digital media. We examined the total time in milliseconds spent viewing the advertisement, as well as the average time spent on areas of interest (price, product, logo). The time spent on areas of interest for direct mail was less than digital media (4.8% of total time vs. 7.2%) but the retention was higher, suggesting more information was digested in less time.


    Conclusions

    Direct, physical mail outperformed digital media on all three of our content evaluative variables: cognitive load, motivation and visual attention. By being processed in less time, having low cognitive load and high motivation scores, direct mail proved to be a more effective tool in driving consumer behavior than digital media. Direct mail taps into intrinsic neurological processes that trigger action. It also offers the creative versatility to amplify action by appealing to senses beyond touch. It is better suited than digital media to close the marketing-sales loop, or the gap between interaction and action.

    In a connected world, brands need both interaction and action. Perhaps, then, the secret to smarter marketing lies at the crossroads of physical and digital media. Fusing the two allows marketers to capitalize on the best of both interaction and action to drive customer relationships and sales.

    This study launched and fueled the new Canada Post imperative, SmartMail Marketing. We have elevated their business and created new channels of growth. This study is an example of how neuro can transform an entire organization.

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    This article was originally published in the Neuromarketing Yearbook of 2016. Liked it? Order the 2017 Neuromarketing Yearbook now!

  • May 17, 2017 15:03 | Carla Nagel (Administrator)

    By Serge Diekstra

    Are neuromarketing tools and research mostly suited for commercial companies? Or are these powerful instruments something we can or maybe even should use for non-profit goals as well?

    A video commercial called “Eerder is Beter”, which translates as “The sooner, the better” and has a length of about 60 seconds. It shows young people in the process of drowning in water while suffocating, panicking and unsuccessfully trying to call for help. The message of the commercial is that it is important to help young people with mental illnesses before something goes terribly wrong. One other goal of the organization is to reduce stigmatization of people with mental health problems. We decided to test the eff ectiveness of the commercial by means of Neurensics’ state of the art fMRI research methods.

    An fMRI study was conducted on the brain of the subjects (N=24), while they were watching the video inside the fMRI scanner. In order to be able to measure how a commercial or another marketing stimulus scores in terms of eff ectiveness, Neurensics has developed 13 fMRI ‘mappers’ for emotions that are related to the consumer’s behavioral change (see fi gure 1). Using proprietary methods, they have extracted multi-voxel networks from the human brain from which the reverse inference of these emotions is possible, a process they call mapping. On the basis of these neural mappers, Neurensics developed its unique 3D Brain Rating™ technology to determine the appreciation of all sorts of marketing stimuli, such as this commercial.

    The test subjects were exposed to the “The sooner, the better” commercial. Consequently, they measured which of the areas became active when the subjects viewed the commercial, and to what intensity, whereby they were able to produce a relative score of the effect of the commercial on the brain. The 3D Brain Rating™ method allowed them to trace the activation of brain dimensions – emotional and behavioral responses to marketing stimuli – that are related to buying behavior.


    More specifically, the 3D Brain Rating™ method measures 13 different emotions, classified in 4 main categories. These are (1) Positive emotions, which generally evoke or facilitate approach behavior, (2)

    Negative emotions, which generally evoke avoidance behavior (3) Personal Appeal, which generally strengthens the positive v negative emotional balance, and (4) General Impact, which generally strengthens all signals, evoking memory formation.

    Results

    We measured how the “The sooner, The Better” commercial scored in terms of eff ectiveness. The results of the fMRI study are plotted for the 13 emotions in the 3D Mindmap (see figure)

    The results show the video commercial stimulates negative emotions such as anger, fear and disgust. This indicates that feelings of aggressiveness, uncertainty and physical aversion are evoked by watching the commercial. Regarding positive emotions, both trust and expectation have an average score, but desire scores below average. This is an indication that the subjects had little feelings of wanting to “buy” the product, in this case the message.

    With regard to personal appeal, the low score on value indicates that the message of the video is not assessed as directly rewarding, and the low score on involvement indicates that the message of the commercial does not activate a sense of personal relevance. Furthermore, it can be stated that the general impact of the commercial is high; the high score on novelty indicates that the commercial evokes sense of newness, or has an element of surprise. Therefore, the signals are generally strengthened and memory formation is very likely.

    Such a combination of high irritability, low personal involvement and a high likelihood of memory formation can be very damaging to the goals of the advertiser. Due to the highly negative feelings about the commercial, it is very unlikely that subjects will take action in line with the goals of the commercial, but instead are very likely to remember the negative feelings now associated with the subject of the commercial (young people with mental health problems) as well as the non-profi t brand shown at the end. If people should see the “The Sooner, The Better” commercial multiple times, a negative association with people with mental health problems would likely be reinforced.

    Conclusions

    Our findings underscore that neuromarketing research may be (even) more important for non-profits than initially thought. The combination of a lack of involvement, high memorization and significant negative emotions generated by viewing “The sooner, The better” commercial, make it likely that this advertisement contributes to stigmatization of young people with mental health problems, rather than reducing it, which is extremely worrisome. This study underlines the great value of neuromarketing research before publishing a marketing stimulus, especially when humanitarian goals are involved. As demonstrated, good intentions by non-profit organizations may in the end have significant negative effects on achieving their goal.

    More neuromarketing research into non-profit advertising is urgently needed to assess whether there are more non-profit campaigns with a humanitarian purpose that are actually backfiring, undermining and harming rather than helping. Specifically for mental health non-profits, the link between stigma and negative emotions elicited by campaigns like “The Sooner, The Better” is of critical importance. Stigma can cause people not to seek help for mental health problems, too often with deadly consequences.

    Generous grants: This research was made possible by funding from DiekstraOrangeWaterhouse Consultants, its shareholders, the generous support of the helpful team at Neurensics, as well as other donors.

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    This article was originally published in the Neuromarketing Yearbook of 2016. Liked it? Order the 2017 Neuromarketing Yearbook now!

  • April 27, 2017 14:52 | Carla Nagel (Administrator)

    By Dr. Thomas Zoëga Ramsøy (Neurons Inc., Denmark)

    What is the effect of prior exposure to advertising on in-store behavior? How does it impact activity and responses at the fixture? What underlies any changes in choice?

    Neurons Inc recently conducted a study (the manuscript is also currently in journal review). In our study, we used mobile eye-tracking and EEG to assess customers’ visual attention, emotional engagement and motivation after exposure to 15 sec / 30 sec ads for paint. We also correlated results with self-report feedback from respondents having completed the EEG and eye-tracking study.

    Results

    By showing ads prior to the in-store tasks, we found that both 15- and 30-seconds ads had a significant effect on actual in-store choice. When choosing paint, prior exposure to a paint ad ramped up the sales from 78% to 91% and 100% for the 15-seconds and 30-seconds ad, respectively (see figure 1).


    figure 1

    Interestingly, a careful step-wise debriefing interview after the in-store trial showed that customers were unaware that they had been exposed to the ad. Even when they were shown the ad again, they denied that it would in fact have any effect on their choice.

    Here, we make two core observations:

    • Despite the self-reports, customers who were exposed to the paint ad spent significantly more time exploring the shelves than those who had not been exposed to the ad (see figure 2)
    • The ad effect was associated with a significantly higher motivation score, as assessed by the asymmetric engagement of the frontal parts of the brain


    figure 2

    Taken together, these findings demonstrate that ads can indeed have an effect on in-store behavior, and that the actual persuasion process can only be assessed through applied neuroscience, not from self reports. This also hints at the possibility of testing other kinds of communication prior to store visits, including tabs, outdoor banners and store entrances. With this publication, we now have protocols for addressing exactly these challenges.

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    This article was originally published in the Neuromarketing Yearbook of last year. Liked it? Order the 2015, 2016 or 2017 Neuromarketing Yearbook now!

  • March 31, 2017 14:45 | Carla Nagel (Administrator)

    By Duncan Smith (Mind Lab International)

    Why is there so much apathy towards recycling in the workplace and how can we drive behavior change towards recycling? To answer these questions, we teamed up with Ceris Burns International who are specialists in Environmental PR.

    The British recycle 43% of their household waste, a massive improvement on the average of 11% 14 years ago. This is still below the 50% EU target for 2020 and this rise in recycling has been slowing down in the past few years. Workplace recycling is even lower. We found that 22% of workplaces are not even providing recycling facilities. A whopping 52% are confused about what they can and can’t recycle.

    Communications have a greater impact if they are emotive since emotions power decision making, but how exactly should these messages be presented in order to effectively change attitudes and behavior? We decided to find out whether threatening, negative messages or positive, hopeful messages about recycling had a greater impact on changing peoples’ attitudes about how important recycling is.

    There is some reason to predict that negatively framed messages may have more of an impact on peoples’ attitudes. We automatically attend to threats in our environment as a survival mechanism, and we tend to give more weight to potential losses than potential gains. The impact of framing also depends on the situation and target audience. Negative messaging tends to be more effective when the outcome is risky or uncertain, and when the audience feels strongly involved in the issue. Under certain circumstances, positive messages can influence people more strongly than negative messages by reinforcing positive associations with the attitudes and behavior. We have found this to be the case in previous research we have conducted.


    Approach

    We used an implicit association test (IAT) to measure implicit, subconscious attitudes towards the importance of recycling. Because recycling is a socially desirable behavior, simply asking people about their intentions to recycle may not be an accurate prediction of future behavior. Measuring subconscious associations bypasses people’s tendency to answer with what they think they are expected to say, allowing us to more accurately measure whether the communications have had an impact on attitudes towards recycling.

    We questioned 200 UK adults about their current recycling behavior and attitudes towards recycling; then viewed either positive or negative messages about recycling; followed by an implicit (IAT) test measuring how strongly they associate recycling with importance; and finally they answered questions regarding their intentions to recycle in the future.

    Results

    After seeing positive messages, people subconsciously felt that recycling was more important, suggesting positive messages are more influential in this context than negative messages.

    Importantly, this effect was significantly enhanced for people who thought recycling was less important, less effective and who reported less frequent recycling behavior, suggesting that positive messaging should specifically target this group in order to change their attitudes and hopefully their future recycling behavior.

    In contrast to the implicit findings, the positive and negative messages did not lead to differences in self-reported intentions to recycle in the future, demonstrating the importance of the implicit measure in this study.

    In summary, if you want your employees or colleagues to recycle more, highlight the benefits of recycling rather than trying to make them feel bad about not recycling. To avoid confusion over what can and can’t be recycled, ensure clearly labeled facilities are present where people generate waste. Make sustainability part of the company ethos and lead by example.

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    This article was originally published in the Neuromarketing Yearbook of last year. Liked it? Order the 2015, 2016 or 2017 Neuromarketing Yearbook now!

  • February 24, 2017 12:13 | Carla Nagel (Administrator)

    By Dr. Carl Marci (Nielsen Consumer Neuroscience)

    Sustaining viewer attention during television advertising has become increasingly challenging as viewers have more distractions. Fox Sports was planning to launch an all-sports network and wanted to create a “win-win” differentiator – providing benefit to both viewers and advertisers. The Double Box (or picture-in-picture) advertising format was designed as a creative way to capture viewer attention and enhance advertising eff ectiveness, while simultaneously providing viewers with a more positive viewing experience in this fragmented environment.

    FOX Sports teamed up with Innerscope Research to study the eff ectiveness of Double Box format advertising in NASCAR, in order to go beyond traditional measures. The scope was later widened to understand the eff ectiveness of Double Box ads in other important sporting environments including College Football, Soccer, UFC and Major League Baseball. FOX aired Double Box pods for the first time in primetime during the 2013 AT&T Cotton Bowl and launched FOX Sports 1, an all-sports network that featured Double Box ads.

    A three-phase study was undertaken with 568 subjects over two years to understand relative levels of emotional engagement with full screen ads and ad pods vs. Double Box during live sporting events, visual attention to branding moments and any additional best practices or insights that can be leveraged for this new format.

    An integrated consumer neuroscience approach was used incorporating fi ndings within a neuroscienceinformed framework combined with traditional measures and included: eye- tracking, biometric emotional response for emotional engagement, and traditional self-report surveys and focus groups to obtain viewers’ stated reactions. 

    For the Double Box studies, each participant was biometrically monitored throughout the testing experience using a Biometric Monitoring System™, which includes a lightweight chest belt that quickly and easily slips on underneath regular clothing. Each belt collects and transmits four channels of neurophysiologic data wirelessly to computers in the testing facility that run specially designed software collecting data throughout. The data are then aggregated and analyzed to identify overall levels of emotional response and attention to each target advertisement. The four biometric channels include: Heart Rate, Skin Conductance, Respiration and Motion.


    Results

    The integrated results show that the Double Box format adds value relative to the traditional fullscreen ad break. This research gave proof of concept for Double Box advertising and created the basis for a clear strategic differentiation for launching Fox Sports against competitive sports networks. 

    There were three main findings. Firstly, attention to advertising in Double Box is surprisingly high; the vast majority of visual attention during advertising is on the sponsored elements (ad and wrap). Viewers only look at the non-advertising content around three times, for approximately one second at a time, during a typical Double Box ad experience. Eye-tracking shows that both groups follow the story of the ad equally. Despite the fact that viewers state they focus on the event content, viewers primarily pay attention to the ad. 

    Secondly, Double Box advertising is more engaging than traditional advertising: those viewing Double Box ads maintain very high emotional engagement with the ad for 50% longer. Engagement is highest when attention to the ad is highest – the ad, not the content window, is driving the stronger response. The Double Box ads generate higher breakthrough levels  compared to full screen ad pods that precede and follow it. Despite high engagement and attention to the advertising, audiences self-report higher enjoyment of the game during Double Box.

    Thirdly, Double Box advertising is immune to traditional shortcomings (position in pod and wear out): By providing the impression of choice, Double Box minimizes drops in engagement, making all positions in the pod equally valuable. Repeated ads benefit from exposure in a Double Box pod, minimizing wear-out. Across five different sports, Double Box makes middle ads more desirable. Engagement for repeat ads increases substantially when aired at some point in Double Box.

    Results led to a variety of focused and actionable recommendations and best practices to show the added value of the new format to both viewers and advertisers. FOX Sports launched FS1 with 15% to 20% of advertising revenue from Double Box. So what are the implications for marketers? Viewer choice ultimately results in increased engagement and increased brand impact with the ads presented in Double Box. It brings value to advertisers by improving overall pod engagement (middle ads) and extending the life of the ad over time. It provides an opportunity to glance at a second window during low points in an ad, helping ads feel much more engaging, and therefore more valuable. Dynamic elements can increase the level of attention to Double Box ads. This off ers a unique opportunity to balance branding, ad content and program content.

    Conclusions

    This research supported Double Box advertising and created the basis for a clear strategic differentiation for Fox Sports. The potential for increased acceptance of the Double Box format may change the future of televised sports and advertising in general. FOX’s commitment to a transparent and collaborative research approach enabled insights to be communicated to all parties with results informing hypotheses for each phase of the study and ultimately impacting live sporting events coverage. Peter Leimbach, Vice President, Sales Research, FOX Sports commented that this advertising research was invaluable in providing insights on the effectiveness of Double Box ads that would be difficult, if not impossible, to garner from typical survey research techniques. Without the biometric and eye-tracking components of the research, the company felt that they would have had little evidence of how viewers emotionally and physically engaged with the ads.

    Nonetheless, despite compelling and unique research outcomes, some challenges remain for the Double Box format. Producing more content during the ad break means more work for everyone. The ad agencies have to create content for wraps and TV producers need to work through the ad breaks. In addition, striking the right balance is a challenge, as new content during the ad break needs to work synergistically with the advertising to be most impactful. The future research programs will continue to address and optimize these challenges. Meanwhile, the results were sufficiently convincing for FOX Television to have rolled out twelve Double Box ad units during a recent prime time episode of American Idol.

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    This article was originally published in the Neuromarketing Yearbook 2015. Liked it? Order the 2015, 2016 or 2017 Neuromarketing Yearbook now!

  • January 12, 2017 17:11 | Carla Nagel (Administrator)

    By Heather Andrew (Neuro-Insight (UK))

    Amongst many in the media world, there is a common belief that newspaper content and advertising produce different responses among print and digital readers, and advertisers tend to regard digital readers as a less engaged and therefore lower value audience. Therefore, as people migrate to digital platforms the traditional business models for newspapers are being challenged.

    Neuro-Insight’s client in this study, NewsUK, had a different perspective. NewsUK publish a number of newspaper titles in both print and online formats, and their belief was that reading behavior is driven less by the platform itself and more by content and the way it is presented; therefore advertisers should value both audiences equally. Earlier research from NewsUK had supported this view, and they wanted an objective way of better understanding readers’ responses to print and tablet editions. Specifically, they wanted to look at whether people had the same level of involvement in the content, whether it elicited a similar emotional reaction and whether people were more likely to remember what they had read based on the platform used. This was the context in which the research project was undertaken./p>

    NewsUK were wary of research based on claimed behavior, knowing that it was difficult for people to self-identify and report on differences in reading patterns based on the reading platform used. Specifically, most conventional research is language-based and therefore dominated by responses experienced in the left hemisphere of the brain, where most speech capability lies. Inevitably, this tends to underplay elements of behavior driven by right-brain responses, dealing with more global or “big picture” thinking. For this reason they chose neuroscience as the methodology for the project; specifically the Steady State Topography approach used by Neuro-Insight.

    The study involved a sample of 150 regular Times readers (split evenly between print and tablet readers). They were convened in small groups in a comfortable environment, where they read that day’s issue of The Times on their preferred platform. Whilst they read for 30 minutes, specialized headsets were used to monitor activity in different areas of their brains, and the reading activity of each respondent was individually filmed so we could link, on a second-by-second basis, what they were reading with corresponding brain activity. The most important metric used in the study was Long Term Memory Encoding (LTME); the process by which stimuli are stored into long-term memory. Previous work by Neuro-Insight and others has demonstrated a clear link between LTME and subsequent decision-making; indeed, it has been shown to be a better predictor of behavior than more conventional measures such as claimed recall. The neuro-research was supplemented by focus groups to explore conscious attitudes and behavior, along with Decode Marketing’s Visual Impact Tool, which was used to evaluate the eff effectiveness of different page layouts.


    The hypothesis to be explored was that content was more important than platform in driving people’s responses to what they were reading.

    Results

    The research provided evidence to support this hypothesis. We found differences between the platforms in terms of the physical reading experience, but that take-out from both the print and tablet editions was very similar. Specifically, there was no significant difference in levels of memory encoding response across the two platforms.


    The physical experience differed in a number of ways. Those reading the tablet tended to flick more between sections and, unsurprisingly, less time was spent on individual pages. Tablet reading was more visually stimulating (levels of visual attention were up 25% for tablet reading versus print) and memory encoding was relatively stronger in the first few minutes of reading. Print reading elicited a stronger emotional response (emotional intensity was 29% higher than for tablet reading), but was a ”slower burn“ experience; levels of memory encoding took longer to build up but were subsequently maintained at a relatively high level.

    However, although there were these differences in the nature of the reading experience, there were many strong similarities between print and tablet readers. The focus groups showed that people applied the same key “rules” when navigating and prioritizing content and, crucially, the neuroscience revealed that levels of LTME were almost identical across the two platforms. This was reflected in very similar levels of recall. This was true for both left brain memory encoding (dealing with detail) and right brain (dealing with macro holistic thinking), and for both editorial and advertising content. Although, on average, readers spent much longer periods of time exposed to print advertising on a given page, mean levels of LTME were actually 10% higher for static adverts on tablets (and this mean level of encoding, reflecting the number and strength of peaks of memory response, is more predictive of impact than time spent).

    Conclusions

    The research provided clear evidence to support the starting hypotheses that content, and how it is displayed, plays a stronger role than platform in driving reader behavior. There is strong evidence to debunk the common industry view that a simple measure of time spent is a sound proxy for consumer engagement and, by extension, a predicative measure of effective advertising. The results of the study have led to a major editorial investment in developing a new edition led website edition of The Times, and NewsUK is also evolving the tablet edition to deliver a better overall design and reader experience.

    The research has provided strong evidence that newspaper content, delivered in similar ways on print and tablet, will deliver similarly engaged readers and advertising outcomes; and by extension these readers should be valued equally, regardless of platform. More broadly, the research has shown that some of the proxy measures currently used to measure advertising effectiveness, such as time spent, are too simplistic and fl awed. With an ever-intensifying drive to demonstrate advertising ROI, we hope this research plays an active part in provoking thoughtful and open discussion about some of the fundamental foundations of current industry thinking around advertising effectiveness.

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    This article was originally published in the Neuromarketing Yearbook 2015. Liked it? Order the 2015, 2016 or 2017 Neuromarketing Yearbook now!

  • December 15, 2016 09:11 | Carla Nagel (Administrator)

    By Rei Ryou (Brain & Research)

    This article is about the effect of outdoor advertising placed along highways by using eye-tracking at the request of Korea Out of Home Advertising Center in November 2014. We found some variables related to effect evaluation of the outdoor advertising from the result of an experiment conducted by each of 30 drivers and fellow passengers. The results indicate that outdoor advertising managed by the government is more effective than private advertising and that fellow passengers tend to spend more time looking at it than drivers do. We expect these findings will be used for the pricing process of outdoor advertising.

    Korea Out of Home Advertising Center is a government-affiliated organization that promotes the government’s finance income by selling outdoor advertising authorization along the highways. The government owns all rights on outdoor advertising and helps manage its size and revenues through regulations.

    The center experiences conflicts in commercial rate levels with the advertising business operators because the basis used to divide the areas was unclear. Korea Out of Home Advertising Center estimated rate tariff s based on the car traffic and the location of the roads in the past. The advertising business operators, however, complained that the prices were high and claimed to have verification of the effect of outdoor advertising to standardize pricing tariffs. The center, therefore, decided to adopt an eye-tracking method to obtain a more objective as well as accurate measurement of the effect of outdoor advertising and requested Brain & Research to perform the task.

    The goal of this research was to estimate the effectiveness of outdoor advertising so that it could function as a basis for designing the effect evaluation models in the future.


    Outdoor advertising managed by the government on highways (A) and private operators in the downtown area (B).


    Approach

    Two highways and a boulevard of South Korea were chosen as locations for the research. There were 59 outdoor advertising sites managed by the government and 16 private ones. The total number of participants were 60 and two people took part in each experiment as a driver and fellow passenger by wearing an eye-tracker. The experiment lasted for a month in November 2014.


    Experiment scene inside the car. A: both the driver and fellow passenger wear the eye-trackers, B: The operator sat in the back seat of the car.


    The main hypotheses for this project are as follows:

    1. Does the outdoor advertising managed by the government have more perceptive effectiveness than the private one?
    2. Is there any difference in eye movement between a driver and fellow passenger?
    3. Is there any difference in effect due to the design, letters, location, shape etc.?
    4. Is there any difference in effect due to the speed, driving skill, gender, age etc.?

    We undertook coding manually by checking the recorded gaze videos and omitted some of them that lasted less than 300ms. The dependent variables are, for instance, eye contact ratio, eye contact frequency, fixation duration etc. We conducted statistical verification for each group. The eye contact ratio is interpreted as a direct index for evaluation of advertising effect for those who looked at the outdoor advertising at least once.

    Results


    A: Outdoor advertising managed by the government is more likely to have an eye fixation ratio that is more than twice that managed by private operators (p<0.000). B: With respect to traffic volume, congested road circumstances significantly promote eye fixation frequency compared with non-congested. C: The fellow passengers appear to look at the outdoor advertising more often than the drivers (p<0.04). D: Outdoor advertising is more likely to have eye fixation ratio as the distance from the road decreases (p<0.008).


    The statistically verified hypotheses are as follows:
    1. The outdoor advertising managed by the government has more than twice the eye contact ratio (44%) than privately managed (18%) , with increased duration.
    2. The fellow passengers looked at the outdoor advertising more than the drivers.
    3. The outdoor advertising attracts more eye contact ratio when it is closer to the road compared with further one.
    4. The outdoor advertising is more likely to be effective when there is traffic congestion.

    The phenomena that show a tendency without statistical validity (p<0.05) are as follows:
    1. People are less likely to look at the outdoor advertising when the visual circumstances are crowded.
    2. The perceptive effect is more likely to be effective as the siting of advertising is relatively low vs. high.
    3. The perceptive effect is more likely to be effective as the visibility distance increases.

    Conclusions

    The outdoor advertising built on the surface or top of buildings downtown, on the one hand, is less likely to have eye contact ratio since it is too high and the circumstances are crowded despite high fl owing traffic. On the other hand, the outdoor advertising placed along the highways is more likely to have eye contact ratio compared to the advertising placed downtown. Considering the findings of this research, we suggest advertisers behave rationally in terms of price and a flowing population based on the objective data.

    Many countries have been recently studying the effect of outdoor advertising by using an eye-tracking method. However, they undergo difficulties in controlling variables because of different sizes and shapes of the outdoor advertising they are dealing with. In this research, we could control the variables since the Korean government maintains the size, shape, location of the outdoor advertising, so there is conformity and standardization.

    In circumstances where the influence of TV decreases, we expect that the influence of outdoor advertising will now be increasing. Unlike TV viewer ratings, nevertheless, there isn’t any precise model for the effectiveness of outdoor advertising as yet. We believe that the development of precise and objective effect evaluation model is essential for the improvement of the advertising industry.

    ---

    This article was originally published in the Neuromarketing Yearbook 2015. Liked it? Order the 2015 or 2016 Neuromarketing Yearbook now!

  • September 22, 2016 11:13 | Carla Nagel (Administrator)

    By Juan Roberto Castro (Neuro Tracking)

    The way potential clients perceived and associated the design of an office building with positive experiences and memories may improve acceptance and influence the purchase decision. Landmark, a real estate project development company in Guatemala, came to our office with two questions in mind: 1) What can we do to make potential buyers purchase office space from our office building project and not from other projects? 2) How can we sell our project without the need of ”selling”? After this meeting, three specific goals were defined:

    1) Minimize the risk of stagnating sales that could cause financial overruns.
    2) Reduce the sales lead-time to give greater certainty to the projected cash flows.
    3) Maximize the use of the cash coming from sales to reduce the financial cost from the bank loan required. The challenge was clear; to find the consumer insights that could help to increase sales speed and reduce risks and stress on investment.


    Cerebral predominance of the market segment graphic

    This approach generated the next question: What is the sensorial communication language (architecture type, shape and spatial distribution, colors, textures, internal and external public spaces) that the office building design needs to have to be able to evoke the appropriate non-conscious response to be accepted and bought by the target market group?

    To answer these questions and resolve the goals defi ned with the customer, we decided to undertake psychometric research to fi nd two types of nonconscious response: 1) The cerebral predominance of the market segment, which would determine its natural communication language to show us how architectural elements make them feel in / out of their “comfort zone”. 2) Their belief systems governing their attitude to life and the circumstances under which they feel secure enough to take relevant or important decisions, like buying an office.

    After determining the target market group and location of the project, we defi ned a sample of 650 men and women between 25 and 65 years, working and living in the area of infl uence of the project. We undertook a face to face interview using a prepared assessment grounded in association and perception techniques and tests such as the Implicit Association Tests, Bag of Words Model, Semantic Latent Analysis, the Remote Analysis Test (RAT), the Down Arrow Technique and neurophysiological tools like the BTSA (Bezinger Thinking Styles Assessment). We were able to defi ne the average brain dominance of the target market group and collect non-conscious answers related to the association and perception of working spaces / architecture with positive / negative experiences and their meaning.

    Results

    The study results showed that the target market group for the project have five relevant psychometric characteristics which govern their office building project buying behavior:

    1) The average target market group have a frontal left and double basal brain dominance which determined the following:
    a) For 95% of the target market group a “fair price” for a purchase of an office means to get all that was offered and they agree on; otherwise they feel it´s an “unfair price” and they associate the purchase experience with feelings of betrayal and deceit, generating rejection of the project. For the developer, it is very important to comply with what is offered in the pre-sales design proposal to be able to close the sale deals.
    b) 77% said it is important that the building design, materials, textures, colors and finishes should be perceived as accessible and not too expensive; no matter if imitation products are used.
    c) 83 % believed that everything in the office building design must generate in them a sense of belonging and social approval to help them reinforce the feeling of “what they are and do is enough to be accepted” by others, especially from family and close friends.
    2) 85% of respondents associated the architectural style, colors and textures of an office with the perception of achievement, since there is a high tendency (95%) to compare themselves with the upper segment, socioeconomically speaking.
    3) 93% prefer “conservative colors and textures” they said, similar to those currently used in their workspaces. This finding was of great importance for the final design of the building because after the study, we made an architectural texture and color research around the areas of influence to determine which colors and textures they consider and call conservative.
    4) 87% are willing to pay a value above the market average price if their future office space has the flexibility to adapt to different uses including dividing it to rent to others.
    5) For 73 %, an office building project should be and perceived as: secure (meaning that the building management makes them feel safe), serious (meaning that the architecture looks professional but casual at the same time), flexible (meaning that it can be adaptable to different uses) and accessible (economically speaking). Thus, owning an office in this project must give the perception of professional achievement. These four words summarize the type of architectural design that the office building needs to have to be considered as a first-option purchase.

    Conclusions

    After having the architectural proposal, we used biometric hardware and software such as eye- tracking, facet and pupillometry analysis to assess the level of attention and emotive activation of the fi nal design to determine its acceptance by the target market group. Finally, a sales strategy was structured with duration of 18 months. The strategy began with an “Open Day Pre-Sales Event” in which the expectation was to sell up to 2% of the total project. To the surprise of the developers, at the end of the “Open Day Pre-Sales Event” 25% of the 210 offices were sold; that is, 50 units. This scope reduced the financial cost by 20% and decreased by a quarter the sales project time line, giving them the cash fl ow certainty they needed to execute the project with a lower level of stress on the investment.

    This is one of several studies that have been conducted for a number of customers, where the goal has been to understand the language of associative and perceptive communication that consumers have and which governs and determines how to approve and buy a real estate product. Biometric tools such as eye-tracking, facet and pupillometry, EEG analysis and assessments have been used in most studies to ensure that the fi nal product meets with the recommendations of the psychometric investigation of what draws attention and evokes the correct emotions to be remembered as the first option of purchase.

    ---

    This article was originally published in the Neuromarketing Yearbook 2015. Liked it? Order the 2016 Neuromarketing Yearbook now!

  • September 07, 2016 10:57 | Carla Nagel (Administrator)

    By Thom Noble (NeuroStrata)

    What are the relative intrinsic, contextual strengths of diff erent advertising media? Traditional research hasn’t fully answered this question, but the application of newer neuro-techniques is now starting to uncover important clues.

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of context in influencing messaging in advertising and marketing communication. Additionally, the increasing knowledge being accumulated from mind-sciences is changing the way we think about creating and developing our advertising and marketing content. With that comes a growing skill amongst neuro-literate marketers on how to more effectively induce Attention, drive Emotion and trigger Memory activation in ad response.


    However, traditional research has struggled to find an objective and meaningful way to measure the relative strengths and weaknesses of different media channels in terms of the contextual impact a specific channel format induces on the ad response itself. Equally, there is an increasing demand to measure the impact of ad response with tools that are more sensitive and better suited to evaluating at the non-conscious level, both the contextual influence of the media channel and the content itself.

    As a specific media channel, radio has, over generations, become embedded in the mind of the client and the media planner as an effective medium for simple, rational ”reminder” and ”call-to-action “advertising. As such, it is typically cast as a valuable tactical support format but very rarely one considered conducive to strategic brand-building or image shifting campaigns in its own right.

    Through new thinking in Behavioral Economics and Neuropsychology and the greater understanding of how, more specifically, audio is processed in the brain, there is a ”challenge hypothesis“ that radio ought to be equally effective as a more strategic, brand-building medium. In short, does it possess the inherent ability to evoke intense emotional responses, elaborate deep memory associations and trigger experiential and multi-sensory cues in ways similar to other ”classic” brand building medium such as TV? And if so, how does it diff er in its ability to do so?

    Approach

    Global, a media and entertainment group and the UK’s largest commercial radio company, commissioned NeuroStrata to conduct a three-step program to explore and evaluate this challenge hypothesis.

    Step one began with an academic and science exploration; a thorough review of 500+ academic science papers from around the world on how audio ”works” in the mind. As well as the academic literature trawl, it involved interviews and discussions with sound and music specialists in academia e.g. cognitive neuroscientists and behavioral psychologists as well as practitioners in sound and music design. Further, it involved inputs from media experts with experience in previous neuroscience studies into media channel evaluation. This stage yielded a refined hypothesis to validate and explore.

    Step two was a state of the art neuroscience study to evaluate the ”system one” consumer response patterns per se to advertising in press, radio, TV formats. A variety of different multi-media ad campaigns were tested across these different media formats and evaluated against an expansive array of multi-sensory, emotional, functional and call-to-action attributes. The method used was a bespoke, ”true“ Implicit Response Time test, conducted by a leading international agency Neurosense, and covered 1500+ respondents. A neuroscience method was chosen because whilst people recognize the power of sound, they aren’t always able to articulate in an objective way how it makes them feel and think differently from more visual messages.

    Step three saw the results analyzed, the insights drawn and conclusions agreed.

    Results

    The findings from the full program provided fresh evidence to support the hypothesis as well as indications as to what specifically characterized radio advertising responses per se. Insights from the study indicated where the potential lay for maximizing both tactical and strategic value from radio, both creatively and in placement.

    The results helped highlight and explain how audio (spoken word and music) can be surprisingly and extraordinarily powerful and can communicate things differently from the same audio with visuals.

    At an emotive level, radio can potentially trigger very strong and rich responses …notwithstanding the lack of visual imagery. Audio possess special qualities in the way it works neuro-scientifically, tapping directly into the more emotive parts of the brain.

    Neural processing, and non-conscious contextual biases unique to radio, help influence and shape audience response patterns differently from other medium. Because images are not supplied, in effect, you ”create your own “mind-pictures from your existing memory webs and schemas; there’s some evidence suggesting that the resulting communication can be interpreted as potentially more personally relevant.

    More counter-intuitively, audio alone can do things that audio + visuals cannot.

    Perhaps because of the absence of other sensory cues, radio has the potential to trigger more expansive associations and can evoke evocative multi-sensory triggers including taste, touch and smell.

    Further, because the context of radio is decoded as a more ”personal”, one-to-one medium, it engenders more trust in the mind of the consumer.

    Given the pre-existing academic literature and practical experience, this study now adds weight to the notion that the role of radio advertising should be fully re-appraised.

    The study confirms its ability to deliver forceful tactical, call-to-action impact and casts light on the how and why.

    Radio’s unique contextual strength in non-consciously evoking ”trust” and ”personal” connection, underscores its enhanced persuasive capabilities. Indeed, in the implicit study, it was rated top on Trust (twice the level of press) and on driving Intent. Yet it also clearly possesses a powerful and rich potential to emotionally build brands at a more strategic level by elaborating and reinforcing memory webs.

    Because it works in the mind differently from TV, it triggers different yet overlapping patterns of emotions, values and benefits. Used imaginatively, both in Creative and Placement terms it possesses an almost uncanny ability to evoke multi-sensory cues, from sound alone. Understanding how these evoked patterns of response diff er (through latest neuroscience tools) provides invaluable insight into how to optimize media plans & boost ROI from complementary use of radio within the TV and full media mix.

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    This article was originally published in the Neuromarketing Yearbook 2015. Liked it? Order the 2016 Neuromarketing Yearbook now!

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